Dirty laundry a powerful magnet for bedbugs

Bedbugs are small insects and suck human blood for their sustenance. They hide around beds in small cracks and crevices. Their existence can be identified by the presence of small bugs or tiny white eggs in the crevices and joints of furniture and mattresses. You might also locate mottled bedbug shells in these areas. A third sign of existence is the presence of tiny black spots on the mattress which are fecal matter, or red blood spots. And if you have itchy bites on your skin, then that is a clear sign. Unfortunately it is the fourth that provides people with the impetus to check their living areas for bugs, rather than the need to maintain hygiene by changing sheets.

The incidences of bedbugs have increased globally and one theory is that that visitors to countries where the hygiene levels are less stringent bring them back to their own country. The cost of cheap travel, both in terms of rail tickets and air flights, has enabled people to visit far-flung places. But one thing that has not been so apparent is how the bed bugs are carried back. It had been thought that bugs are more drawn to the presence of a human being – but surely they don’t piggyback on one across regions and continents?

The authors of a recent research into the matter have a new perspective of the matter. They believe that bugs are drawn to evidence of human presence, and not necessarily just to the presence of a human host. They believe that bed bugs, in places where hygiene is slightly lacking, collect in the dirty laundry of tourists and are then transported back to the tourists’ own location, from where they feed and multiply.

While this was an experimental study, the results are interesting because it had been previously thought that bed bugs prefer to be near sleeping people because they can sense blood.

The experiments leading to these results were conducted in two identical rooms.

Clothes which had been worn for three hours of daily human activity were taken from four volunteers. As a basis of comparison, clean clothes were also used. Both sets of clothes were placed into clean, cotton tote bags.

The rooms were identically set to 22 degrees Celsius, and the only difference was that one room had higher carbon dioxide levels than the other, to simulate the presence of a human being.

A sealed container with bed bugs in was placed in each room for 48 hours. After twenty four hours, when the carbon dioxide levels had settled, they were released.

In each room there were four clothing bags introduced – two containing soiled laundry and the other two containing clean laundry, presented in a way that mimicked the placement of clean and soiled clothes in a hotel room.

After a further 4 days, the number of bedbugs and their locations were recorded. The experiment was repeated six times and each experiment was preceded by a complete clean of the room with bleach.

The results between both rooms were similar, in that bed bugs gravitated towards the bags containing soiled clothes. The level of carbon dioxide was not a distinguishing factor in this instance, and the result suggested traces of human odour was enough to attract bed bugs. The physical presence of a human being was not necessary.

The carbon dioxide however did influence behaviour in that it encouraged more bed bugs to leave the container in the room with carbon dioxide.

In other words, the carbon dioxide levels in a room are enough to alert bed bugs to human presence, and traces of human odour in clothes are enough to attract them.

Why is this hypothesis useful to know? If you go to a place where the hygiene is suspect, then during the night when you are asleep, the bed bugs know you are present, and if they do not bite you, during the day they may come out and embed themselves in your dirty laundry. The researchers concluded that the management of holiday clothing could help you avoid bringing home bedbugs.

The simple way of protecting yourself against these pesky hitchhikers could just be to keep dirty laundry in sealable bags, such as those with a zip lock, so they cannot access it. Whether or not it means they will turn their attention to you during your holiday is a different matter, but at least it means you will avoid bringing the unwanted bugs back into your own home.

The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Sheffield and was funded by the Department of Animal & Plant Sciences within the same university.

More research of course is needed into the study. For example, if there were a pile of unwashed clothes while some was sleeping in the room, would the bugs gravitate towards the human or towards the clothes? It is more likely that they move for the human, but that kind of theory is difficult to test without willing volunteers!

Also, did the bugs in the room only head for the unwashed clothes because of the absence of a human, or did the proximity of the clothes to the container lull them into account the way they did? Also what is not accounted for are other factors by which bed bugs may be drawn to where they reside. Perhaps in the absence of a human being in the room, bed bugs would head for the next best alternative, which are clothes with trace human odours or skin cells, but perhaps with a human being in the room, bed bugs might rely on temperature differences to know where to zoom in on. In other words, instead of detecting human presence using carbon dioxide, they rely on the difference in temperature of the human body relative to its surroundings (the human body is at 36.9 degrees Celsius).

Carbon dioxide levels have been shown to influence mosquitoes and how they react but perhaps bed bugs rely on other cues.

There could be other factors that cannot or were not be be recreated in the same controlled environment of the experiment.

Ever wonder what it was like in the past centuries? Did people have to deal with bed bugs if they lived in the times of the Baroque ?

Nobody knows but one thing is for sure. Getting rid of bed bugs is a bothersome business but if you can prevent them getting in your home in the first place, all the better!

The need for cautious antibiotic usage

Antibiotics are medicines which are used to treat forms of bacterial infection or prevent their spread. As the name “antibiotics” suggest, they are anti-bodies and work by killing bacteria or preventing them from reproducing and spreading.

That all sounds impressive. But unfortunately antibodies don’t work for everything. For example, antibiotics don’t work for viral infections such as colds and flu, and most coughs and sore throats. Someone suffering from these infections usually get better without the use of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics to treat these is actually counter-productive, as taking antibiotics when you don’t need them encourages dangerous bacteria that live inside you to become resistant. Over time, this will mean that when you require the help of antibiotics most, they may not work for you as you may have actually been encouraging the tolerance of bacteria by suppressing your body’s ability to fight bacteria.

So don’t use antibiotics for common ailments that can get better on their own. In these situations, what you need is pain relief, and there are many options to choose from. However, antibiotics may be used to treat bacterial infections in cases such as when bacteria could infect others unless treated or infections are not likely to clear up without antibiotics. In other words, if there is further risk of infection to others, or complications which may arise from a lack of treatment, then a course of antibiotics is best followed.

The doses of antibiotics vary but if you are prescribed a course, then take the antibiotics as directed on the packet or the patient information leaflet that comes with the medication. If in doubt then seek advice from the pharmacist.

Antibiotics can be administered in various ways. The most common antibiotics are oral ones, in the form of capsules, tablets or liquid. These are commonly used to treat moderate infections or infections which are milder. There are also topical antibiotics, which are basically creams, lotions, sprays or drops, which are often administered for skin infections.

Topical and oral antibiotics are for less-serious infections. More serious infections, where the medicine has to be absorbed more quickly into the bloodstream, have to be treated by antibiotics administered through injection or drip infusion.

It is essential to finish taking a prescribed course of antibiotics, even if you feel better before the course has ended The prescribed doseage is the estimated time it will take to completely kill off the bacteria. Midway through a course, you may have killed off enough bacteria to not be under the effect of the infection, but stopping the course of antibiotics then can leave the remaining bacteria become resistant to the antibiotic.

But what if you missing a dose of antibiotics? If that is the case, then it is advisable to take that dose as soon as you remember and then continue to take your course of antibiotics as normal. However, if you have missed a dose and only remembered it when it is nearly time for the next dose, it is preferable to simply skip it and merely to continue your regular dosing schedule. Taking two doses only encourages the body to anticipate needing the double doseage in order to fight the infection, and messes up the body’s resistance levels.

Furthermore, there is a higher risk of side effects if you take two doses closer together than recommended. You may experience effects such as pain in your stomach, diarrhoea, and feeling or being sick. Most side effects are gastro-intestinal, and overdosing on anti-biotics may cause bloating, indigestion and diarrhoea.

Some people may have an allergic reaction to antibiotics, especially penicillin and a type called cephalosporins. In very rare cases, this can lead to a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), which is a medical emergency. Sufferers carry an epi-pen and the drug is administered in the bloodstream through injection.

Antibiotics are not over the counter medicines and you should never use any remaining tablets arising from someonbe else’s incomplete course, as you may experience different reactions to the drug. Some antibiotics are also not suitable for people with certain medical conditions, or women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, as they may, for example, adversely affect the lining of the stomach. You should only ever take antibiotics prescribed for you and also never pass them on to someone else.

Antibiotics are only still chemicals and depending on the constituents, some can also react unpredictably with other medications, such as the oral contraceptive pill and alcohol. It’s important to read the information leaflet that comes with your medication carefully and discuss any concerns with your pharmacist or GP.

There are hundreds of different types of antibiotics, but most of them can be broadly classified into six groups. These are outlined below.

Penicillins (such as penicillin and amoxicillin) – widely used to treat a variety of infections, including skin infections, chest infections and urinary tract infections

Cephalosporins (such as cephalexin) – used to treat a wide range of infections, but some are also effective for treating more serious infections, such as septicaemia and meningitis

Aminoglycosides (such as gentamicin and tobramycin) – tend to only be used in hospital to treat very serious illnesses such as septicaemia, as they can cause serious side effects, including hearing loss and kidney damage; they’re usually given by injection, but may be given as drops for some ear or eye infections

Tetracyclines (such as tetracycline and doxycycline)– can be used to treat a wide range of infections, but are commonly used to treat moderate to severe acne and rosacea

Macrolides (such as erythromycin and clarithromycin) – can be particularly useful for treating lung and chest infections, or an alternative for people with a penicillin allergy, or to treat penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria

Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) – broad-spectrum antibiotics that can be used to treat a wide range of infections

The use of antibiotics especially for conditions that aren’t serious has led to a rise in the number of high-tolerant infections, or superbugs. These superbugs and have a high tolerance to many anti-bodies and include:

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Clostridium difficile (C. diff)
the bacteria that cause multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE)

Ridding the world of these types of infections can be challenging, and these superbugs are becoming an increasing cause of disability and death across the world. The biggest worry is that new strains of bacteria may emerge with higher levels of resistance and that can’t be effectively treated by any existing antibiotics, so we have to be wary in how we use them, and when we suffer from minor infections, let the body try to fight off the infection instead of relying on antibiotics which may weaken the body’s immunity in the long run.